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Andrology – Disorders, Clinic Services and Male Care

Andrology is a medical specialty that deals with the health and disorders of the male sex. Andrology is committed to the treatment, research, education and patient care of male infertility, with particular focus on the male reproductive system and urologic issues unique in men. Also, an andrologic clinic specializes in laboratory aspects of infertility diagnosis.

Some of the disorders treated by andrology specialists are:

  • Impotence or erectile dysfunction
  • Infertility
  • Intersex and transsexuality
  • Ejaculatory disturbances
  • Penile curvature
  • Priapism
  • Sperm conducting system defects
  • Andrologic cancer (scrotum, testes, penis)
  • Hypospadias
  • Swelling of scrotum
  • Intra-scrotal content
  • Veneral disease
  • Groin swelling and hernias
  • Delayed puberty
  • Penile torsion


Components of the Male Reproductive System

The male reproductive system consists of several organs acting to produce spermatozoa and to deliver it to the female reproductive tract. The system depends on testosterone, produced in the testis, and it is regulated by the pituitary and the hypothalamus. The components are:

  • Testis – site of germ cell development.
  • Scrotum – houses and protects testis.
  • Epididymis – tubule connected to the testis to bring spermatozoa.
  • Vas deferens – transports mature spermatozoa to the prostatic urethra.
  • Seminal vesicles – contribute with 70% of the fluid volume of the ejaculate, rich in fructose and prostaglandins.
  • Prostate – 25% of the fluid, rich in zinc, critic acid, choline, acid phosphatase, seminin, important for the function of spermatozoa during and after ejaculation.
  • Penis – responsible for the delivery of male germ cells to the female tract

The male reproductive tract is dependent on the endocrine and nervous systems.

Common Andrology Services

Some services provided by andrologic clinics include:

  • In Vitro Fertilization (IVF)
  • Sperm preparation for IVF
  • Male infertility consultation
  • Sperm cryopreservation
  • Sperm harvest
  • Intrauterine insemination
  • Semen analysis
  • Cancer treatment
  • Chemotherapy
  • Radiation
  • Surgery

Specialized Tests

  • Sperm Morphology Classification
  • Sperm Viability Testing
  • Hypo-osmotic Swelling Test
  • Anti-sperm antibodies
  • Leukocytospermia


Andrology Specialists Recommendations

To prevent disease and maintain reproductive health, andrology specialists recommend

  • regular exercise
  • lead a healthy lifestyle
  • scan the testes regularly for abnormalities, in order to prevent cancer among other disorders.