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Thoracic Surgery

Cardiothoracic Surgery

The field of medicine involved in the treatment of diseases that affect the organs of the chest (or thorax) is called thoracic surgery. It generally treats diseases of the lung, esophagus, chest wall, the diaphragm, the stomach, furthermore, certain respiratory and gastroesophageal problems. Cardiothoracic surgery also involves the heart, the great vessels and lungs, but it must be noted that the term differs from country to country, as in the U.S., New Zealand and Australia surgery involving lungs is not included.

Some subspecialties of thoracic surgery are:

Adult Cardiac Surgery

Also known as heart surgery, in which a team of heart surgeons, cardiologists, vascular surgeons and experienced nursing staff make use of technology and innovative therapies to achieve and support the best possible outcomes.

Some areas of expertise include:

  • (CABG) Coronary artery bypass graft surgery – a mayor heart operation which uses blood vessels to bypass clogged coronary heart arteries.
  • (OPCAB) Off-Pump coronary artery bypass surgery – a technique in which the coronary artery is carried out with the heart still beating, offering important advantages like reducing the risk of stroke and using less blood from transfusions.
  • Heart valve surgery – uses minimally invasive approaches to perform aortic and mitral valve repairs.
  • Maze procedure – a surgical intervention to cure atrial fibrillation.
  • Heart failure and transplant – which helps patients who are not eligible for heart transplant, to postpone and sometimes eliminate the need for transplantation.
  • Thoracic aortic disease – specializes in evaluation and treatment of thoracic aortic aneurysms, chronic aortic dissections, Marfan syndrome.

Adult General Thoracic Surgery

Thoracic surgery treats the following conditions and diseases:

  • Lung cancer and benign tumors of the lung
  • Emphysema
  • Airway obstruction
  • Mysathenia gravis
  • Thoracic trauma
  • Esophageal tumor
  • Mediastinal tumor
  • Gastroesophageal reflux
  • Pleural diseases
  • Chest wall tumors
  • Lung transplantation

Pediatric Cardiothoracic Surgery

Refers to the treatment of a range of conditions in children with congenial cardiac disorders that require surgical intervention.

Some of these pediatric cardiothoracic surgeries are:

  • Atrial septal defects
  • Single ventricle anomalies
  • Neonatal surgery
  • Surgery for congenital heart disease
  • Marfan’s syndrome
  • Ross procedure
  • Fontan procedure
  • Norwood procedure
  • Glenn shunt procedure
  • Repair of coarctation of aorta
  • AV canal repair
  • Tetralogy of Fallot repair
  • Tracheal reconstruction
  • Transplantation

Some of the best hospitals offer a cardiothoracic critical care, designed for the treatment and recovery of postoperative cardiac surgery and thoracic surgery patients. It provides respiratory care units, standard monitoring capacities, advances cardiopulmonary support, ventricular assist devices and ECMO or extracorporeal membrane oxygenation.

Risks of Cardiothoracic Vascular Surgery

Thanks to the development of cardiothoracic surgery and cardiopulmonary bypass techniques, mortality rates have been reduced to low ranks. In general, risks depend on the type of condition; for instance, congenital heart defects have an estimated of 6% mortality rate, yet another major concern in thoracic surgery is the incidence of neurological damage. Strokes occur in 5% of people undergoing cardiothoracic vascular surgery, moreover neurocognitive deficits are also attributed to cardiopulmonary bypass.

Thoracic Surgery Abroad

The most common types of cardiothoracic vascular surgery is coronary artery bypass grafting (CABG), heart valve replacement, angioplasty, pacemakers and cardioverter defibrillator implants.

Due to the increased reputation of medical tourism, a wide range of modern hospitals are available worldwide, offering expert services, an attractive and cost-effective alternative for patients is developed countries.