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Neurological diseases

Neurological Diseases

 Neurological diseases always stem from the dysfunction of the brain, the spinal cord or the peripheral nerves and may disrupt the basic functioning of the mind and the body including balance, coordination, speech, muscle work, memory and other cognitive abilities. Neurological disorders list counts over 600 conditions which can be categorized as:

  • Hereditary neurological diseases (Cerebral palsy, Hydrocephalus)
  • Infectious diseases (meningitis)
  • Degenerative neurological diseases (Alzheimer’s disease, Huntington’s disease, Parkinson’s disease)
  • Traumatic injuries
  • Cancer, tumors (brain tumor)
  • Developmental neurological diseases (abnormal development of the brain and the central nervous system (autism, motor disorders, Down syndrome, ADHD)
  • Diseases of the arteries of the brain (stroke)
  • Seizures (epilepsy)
  • Movement disorders (Tourette’s syndrome, Parkinson’s disease, tremors)
  • Psychiatric disorders (Schizophrenia)


As the neurological diseases list is extensive and varied, very few symptoms can be specified that would generically apply to all neurological diseases. Among these few we can mention:

  • Pain
  • Weakness
  • Headaches
  • Trembling
  • Numbness

What specialists can treat neurological diseases?

  • General neurologists
  • Neuro-oncologists
  • Neuro-surgeons
  • Psychiatrists
  • Pediatric neurologists
  • Speech therapists
  • Rehabilitation specialists
  • Neuro-immunologists
  • Neuro-otoralingologist

The most Common Neurological Diseases

The most common neurological diseases list includes:

  • Multiple sclerosis – is said to be an autoimmune disorder that attacks the central nervous system disrupting sensory, muscle and coordination functions to the extent that it may lead to paralysis. There is no known cure for this illness, but relapses can be well controlled with medication.
  • Epilepsy – is a varied condition in which the normal pattern of neural activity is disturbed inducing abnormal emotional, behavioral, and sensory patterns, often spasms and convulsions. 
  • Migraine – is a recurring throbbing headache accompanied by vomits, and hypersensitivity to certain sensorial stimuli. As it can be triggered by psychological, physical and environmental factors, doctors still not fully understand its pathology; therefore there is no generally applicable, absolute treatment.
  • Alzheimer disease – one of the most common non-reversible neurological diseases that mostly develops over the age of 65. It may result in severe memory loss, behavioral abnormalities and personality changes that over time may lead to the total loss of cognitive abilities. There is no known cure, but with medication the process can be slowed down. 
  • Parkinson’s disease – is a motor system disorder that results in trembling, rigid body motions, instability and loss of coordination.
  • Dementia – is the gradual loss of cognitive abilities that often affect people over 65.
  • Neuro-infections – Meningitis and Encephalitis are viral or bacterial infectious neurological diseases that attack the membranes of the brain and the spinal cord. Symptoms usually appear suddenly and become increasingly severe: headache, fatigue, stiff neck, irritability, vomiting and confusion. Treatment involves anti-viral medication, antibiotics and corticosteroids.
  • Traumatic injuries – may result in paralysis, aphasia, loss of cognitive abilities.
  • Stroke