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Cancer Treatments Abroad

Cancer

Cancer refers to the appearance of cancerous or malignant cells in the body, due to a mutation, in which they lose their attribute to commit cell suicide when they are not needed any more. Mutated cells begin to proliferate in an uncontrolled fashion and may cause deadly growths in any part of the body.

Causes of Cancer

Normal cells have a finely-coordinated behavior pattern: they multiply when the body needs them, and die when the it does not. Whencells grow in the body out of control, dividing too quickly, or when cells lose their ability to die, cancer may appear. Abnormal growths can be developed in any organ or tissue of the body, so we can distinguish countless types of cancer. Among the causes of cancer medical literature often mentions:

•Chemicals such as benzene

•Excessive alcohol consumption

•Environmental toxins

•Excessive sunlight exposure

•Genetic susceptibility

•Viruses

•Radiation

•Obesity

The most common types of cancer in the U.S. for women are:

Lung cancer

Colon cancer

Breast cancer

For men:

Prostate cancer

Lung cancer

Colon cancer

Environmental factors affect the types of cancer present in different areas of the world. For instance, stomach cancer is quitecommon in Japan, whereas, interestingly, it is unusual in the U.S.

Types of Cancer

Among the most common types of cancer we find:

Brain cancer

Cervical cancer

Hodgkin’s lymphoma

Kidney cancer

Leukemia

Liver cancer

Hodgkin’s lymphoma

Ovarian cancer

Skin cancer

•Testicular cancer

•Thyroid cancer

•Uterine cancer Depending on the type of cancer and its location, symptoms may vary. For example, in colon cancer, you might experience constipation and blood in the stool, while lung cancer can cause chest pain and shortness of breath.

The most common, generic cancer sign and symptoms include:

•Weight loss

•Night sweats

•Malaise

•Loss of appetite

•Fever

•Fatigue

•Chills Doctors can perform a set of tests to check for a cancer sign based on the type and the location of the suspected problem. Some of theminvolve:

•Biopsy

•Blood tests

•Bone marrow biopsy

•Chest X-ray

•Complete blood count

CT scan

•Liver function test

MRI scan

If diagnosed, it is important to discuss the size, type, stage and location of the cancer, before patients are informed about treatment options, along with their benefits and risks.

Cancer Treatment

Depending on the type and stage of the cancer, there are several treatment options available. The stage of the cancer shows how extensive the cancer has become and whether it has spread to other locations

.•If the cancer is in one well-identifiable location, the most efficient treatment option is surgery. Colon, breast, lung and skin cancers are often treated with cancer surgery.

•When the cancer has spread to the local lymph nodes, the cancer is dissected and the surrounding lymph nodes are removed to stop the cancer from spreading.

•Radiation and chemotherapy are used when surgery cannot remove all the cancer. For certain types of cancer, a combination of radiation, chemo and surgery is necessary.

Depending on the type and the stage of the diagnosed cancer, prognosis can be positive for some patients. Some cancers, after effective treatment, allow patients to live for many years with the disease. Other cancers are life consuming.

In order to prevent and reduce the risk of getting a malignant tumor, follow these guidelines:

•Eat healthily

•Exercise regularly

•Limit alcoholic consumption

•Maintain a healthy weight

•Minimize exposure to toxic chemicals and radiation

•Avoid smoking or chewing tobacco

•Reduce sun exposure