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Cervical Cancer

Cervical Cancer

 The abnormal proliferation of cells can start anywhere in our body.  In women one of the most frequent locations is the cervix (part of the uterus that connects it with the vagina). In treating cervical cancer, success rates are high, but diagnosis and medical help should come at an early stage for full recovery. Cervical cancer is caused by a virus called humanpapiloma, which can easily be diagnosed and treated. 

Cervical Cancer Prevention

  • Precancerous cells do not cause any symptoms, so regular Pap tests are essential in preventing the development of cancer. It is a short routine lab test that identifies the presence of human papillomavirus that may cause cervical cancer. 
  • Frequent change of sexual partners and not using condoms increase the risk of cervical cancer as the virus is transmitted through sexual contact. The virus might be dormant for a long time without any sign and cause cancer only years after the infection. 
  • If you have or had any other sexually transmitted diseases, increase the frequency of Pap tests. 
  • In many countries young girls get HPV vaccine which gives protection from two potentially dangerous HPV types. 
  • Genetic and lifestyle factors have been associated with cervical cancer. If you have a family history of this type of cancer, tests should be more frequent. Lead a healthy life, avoid excessive drinking and smoking. 
  • Strengthen your immune system with a balanced diet and dietary supplements. 


What Are The Symptoms of Cervical Cancer?

You should see you gynecologist if you experience one or more of the following: 

  • Spontaneous bleeding from the vagina
  • Changed pattern in your menstrual cycle
  • Painful sex
  • Bloody vaginal discharge, often with a heavy odor 

Diagnosing Cervical Cancer

  • With Pap test and biopsy taken from the surface of the cervix doctors can diagnose with certainty the presence of precancerous or cancerous cells. 
  • Over the age of 30 doctors may make a HPV DNA test to identify infections with HPV that are likely to cause cervical cancer.
  • Physical examination of the cervix with a colposcope, a magnifying tool, can also help doctors in diagnosis. 
  • To examine deeper layers of the cervix, cone biopsy is taken. 

Types of Cervical Cancer

Cancer normally initiates in two types of cervical cells. In majority, it appears first in the outer part of the cervix that is connected to the vagina. It is covered with the so called squamous cells, which are thin and flat in form. 

Cancerous cells might occur in the glandular cells of the pelvis, but this type of cancer accounts for only a small portion of the cases. 

Stages of Cervical Cancer

Once diagnosed in setting up a treatment plan, it is essential to specify the stage of the cancer. It usually happens with CT and MRI tests and with scopes to map the rectum and bladder area. 

Stage 1 – cancer is on the cervix

Stage 2 – cancer appears on the vagina

Stage 3 – Cancer spread to the pelvic side and the vagina

Stage 4 – Cancer spreads to the pelvic side wall and the whole vagina

Stage 5 – Metastasis, cancer spreads to nearby and distant organs

Cervical Cancer Treatment 

When cervical cancer is found early it can be cured without permanently damaging or removing the reproductive organs. 

Cervical cancer treatment can involve:

  • Medication and chemotherapy
  • Radiotherapy
  • Removal of pelvic lymph nodes
  • Removal of ovaries and fallopian tubes
  • Hysterectomy (removal of the uterus)


Cervical Cancer Surgery 

Cervical cancer surgery usually involves simple hysterectomy or radical hysterectomy. When the cancer penetrated less than 3 mm into the cervix doctors usually remove the cervix and the uterus to prevent the spreading of the cancer. During radical hysterectomy, which implies that cancerous cells are found deeper than 3 mm in the cervix, along with the cervix and uterus, the ovaries, tubes, and lymph nodes are also removed. Both cervical cancer surgery procedures make becoming pregnant impossible.