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Ophthalmology and Ophthalmic Surgery

Ophthalmology, the scientific study of the eye, is a more than 2800 year-old medical science. Degenerative and hereditary diseases of the eye can be treated with exceptionally high success rate, and ophthalmology technology is developing at an incredible pace.

Probably because of the long history ophthalmology dates back, it was the first branch of medical field that had organized board certification.

ophthalmology laser medicine

When Your Vision is at Stake, Go For the Best

An ophthalmologist needs to be trained in both medical and surgical procedures, because their main activity is performing ophthalmic surgery. Their training varies from country to country, however a common trait is that after the medical school trained in general medicine, they have to complete years of specialized training (both practical and theoretical).

Do not confuse ophthalmology with optometry, because in most of the countries optometrists are not certified doctors.

Outside the U.S.A. and Canada they are health care professionals who are able to test vision, prescribe lenses or treat minor eye diseases, but are not trained to perform any ophthalmology surgery.

Our eye and its surroundings are extremely sensitive areas, so make sure the professional who will perform surgical treatment or prescribe you any medication is a board certified ophthalmic surgeon.

What Are The Most Common Diseases of the Eye?

As some eye diseases do not always have a symptom, it is essential to have regular checkups. Early diagnosis and professional treatment can prevent a permanent loss of vision!

The National Eye Institute suggests seeing an ophthalmologist in case of the following symptoms:

  • Pain
  • Double vision
  • Fluids coming from the eye
  • Dim vision
  • Seeing flashes of light

The major causes of vision deterioration and blindness are macular degeneration that accompanies ageing, diabetic retinopathy, glaucoma and cataract.

Macular degenerations

It is an age related disorder which impedes sharp and fine vision, affecting people over 65 in a great percentage. The early sign of macular degeneration is some yellowish deposits under the retina called drusen.

Refractive errors

One of the most common type of eye dysfunctions. According to the statistics of the National Eye Institute refractive corrections could improve the vision of around 11 million Americans. Besides myopia (distorted distance vision) and hyperopia (distorted close vision) astigmatism (total vision distortion) and presbyopia (inability to focus on close images) are the most common refractive conditions.

Diabetic retinopathy

Diabetic condition gradually damages the blood circulation of the eyes and for many eventually it can lead to blindness. Controlling diabetes and blood pressure is crucial in protecting the vision of diabetic patients.


It is a film that covers the lens of the eyes and is a condition that can develop at any age. Cataract removal is a relatively standard ophthalmic surgery procedure, but unfortunately remains beyond the reach of many. Excessive exposure to sun and age has been closely related to the evolvement of cataracts.


It endangers vision through the damage of the optic nerve and can cause vision loss to total blindness. Although it can develop throughout years without the patient realizing it, sharp pain and vision loss are common symptoms as well. Immediate medical intervention can save vision.


It is an imbalanced position of the eyes due to their faulty coordination. They are either cross in or turn out without the capacity to focus on the same image. If not treated, it can cause permanent vision damage on one eye.

ophthalmology Optician determing prescription values

Ophthalmology Surgery

  • The eye is a very fragile area with a lot of nerves running in it. Even a minor intervention can cause pain, so either topical or local anesthesia will be applied on you.
  • In the pre-consultation you will undergo very thorough testing; air pressure, pupil dilation and measuring the thickness of the cornea.
  • Go to the consultation with a list of questions do not feel shy to ask about the procedure and the complications.
  • Contact lenses cannot be worn for at least 3 days before the testing session (in case of rigid lenses, 3 weeks).
  • Take your glasses to the consultations.
  • After the surgery you will experience pain and dryness and you will have to use special drops to avoid infection.
  • From most ophthalmology surgery patients heal rapidly, vision improvement is already noticed within a few days.
  • Be prepared for regular visits to the ophthalmic surgeon for at least six months.

For further reading on ophthalmologic surgeries, please visit the sight below.

Entire list of ophthalmology's procedures Abroad