Go to Top

Gender Reassignment Surgery

Get exclusive information about [page_title].
Our professional health care representative will contact you.


Gender  Male Female

Gender Reassignment Surgery- Female to Male Alteration

Gender studies argue that gender identity is nothing else but a cultural construction that males and females acquire with socialization. Gender identity and biological sex does not seem to overlap at all times: there are people who experience a conflict between their biological sex and the gender they can identify with. In medical terms this phenomenon is labeled as gender identity disorder, which must not be confused with homosexuality. Individuals with gender identity conflicts may manifest their presumed belonging by acquiring mannerisms of the opposite sex, or cross-dressing, but a growing number of people turn to science to tailor their body permanently to their mental orientation and undergo gender reassignment surgery (aka sex reassignment surgery).

Why Is Gender Reassignment Surgery Performed?

Patients seeking sex reassignment surgery may experience the following physical and psychological symptoms even from early childhood:

  • Feeling of isolation, loneliness and depression
  • Dress and behave like the opposite sex
  • Long for becoming the opposite sex
  • Cannot accept their genitals
  • Partner choices may be from the same or the opposite sex
  • Emotional stress and suicidal thoughts 

Symptoms and warning signs must be taken seriously by family members and friends and if psychotherapy does not help the patient come to terms with their sexual identity, hormonal therapy and genital reconstruction surgery can be considered. Transgendered people suffer a long-term emotional stress, confusion and guilt before they come out of the closet and decide to have gender reassignment surgery, which is a major, irreversible operation.

The Gender Reassignment Surgery

 The Psychological Preparation

For the mental health and social functionality of an individual, fixed gender identity is essential. Before any surgery is conducted, an extensive psychological counseling is necessary to prepare the patient for this radical biological, emotional and social change with all its implications. Post-surgery therapies and often life-long counseling may help the individual assume the new role and construct a balanced, fully integral identity.

Hormonal Preparation

The mental preparation is followed by hormonal therapy, which is recommended to be stopped 2-3 weeks before the gender reassignment surgery takes place. Testosterone therapy for females awaiting surgery results in the enlargement of the clitoris and the deepening of the voice.

The Genital Reconstruction Surgery

The purpose of sex reassignment surgery is to alter the genital organs from one gender to another. Obviously, it falls into two categories: sex reassignment surgery female to male and male to female. Technically speaking there is less chance of a successful gender reassignment surgery female to male than the other way around.

Gender reassignment surgery is usually performed out of two considerations:

  1. Adults who are convinced of being born in the wrong body and feel they can only identify themselves with the opposing sex are ready to undergo genital reconstruction surgery.
  2. Babies who are born with intersex deformities (ambiguous organs), in a transitional stage between female and male genitals.  

Gender Reassignment Surgery Female to Male Alteration

Because of the anatomical structure, it is a much more complicated procedure with less success rates than male to female surgeries. Because of its complexity, the sex reassignment is completed in several stages. The greatest challenge of the procedure is to form a functional penis from the limited amount of clitoral tissue (phalloplasty) preserving the erogenous nature of the organ and make it capable of a sexual intercourse.

First a mastectomy is performed to form a flat, male chest and reshape the nipples.

As the first step of the genital surgery, the female reproductive organs are fully removed (hysterectomy).

Then the inner lining of the vagina is removed (vaginectomy) and the urethra is lengthened between the labia minora.

The pelvic floor and the scrotum are reconstructed by attaching the labia majora.

As some extra skin and tissue is needed to build up the penis, a skin graft is harvested from the forearm or thighs and positioned in a way that the clitoral erogenous sensation is maintained with the help of reconstructing nerve connections.

The clitoris is denuded and placed in a position that will allow stimulation by the neophallus.

After the sex reassignment surgery female to male procedure patients stay in hospital for 2-3 weeks. It takes 3-6 months till the sensation returns to the penis, so it is recommended to complete the tattooing of the glans in this period.

The final step of the gender reassignment surgery is to implant the penile erection prosthesis and the testicular prosthesis.

Sometimes, besides genital reconstruction surgery, mentoplasty (reshaping the jaw line) is also performed to strengthen masculine traits.

Sex Reassignment Surgery Abroad

Sex reassignment surgery is mostly done in private medical facilities specialized in transgendered patients. There are a few centers available in the U.S. as well, but the sex reassignment surgery cost is astronomical and the transgendered population is still not so prominent that it could improve the openness of society to these procedures. If for economical or social considerations you decide to seek gender reassignment surgery abroad, do not stop till Thailand, a global hub for medical tourism and sex reassignment in particular.

Sex Reassignment Surgery Cost

It is an extremely costly procedure in developed countries; gender reassignment surgery female to male prices may go over $50,000, male to female sex change costs around $10,000-$25,000.

Popular Destinations