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Male infertility treatment

Male Infertility Treatment

Male infertility is defined as the inability of a man to make a woman pregnant. In the past, the availability of male infertility treatment was very scarce compared to the number of female treatments, due to the lack of information about the underlying causes. However, for the last decades new tests and research have brought forward a revolution in male infertility treatment giving hope to millions of couples worldwide.

Causes of Male Infertility

The basic aspects of male biology required for a satisfactory sexual performance and fertility are the normal functioning of the testes, the hypothalamus and the pituitary gland. The latter are situated in the brain and are responsible for the production of certain hormones.

From these points of view the most common causes that lead to male infertility are:

  • Genetic problems in the testes (30% – 40% of the cases)
  • Blockage in the pathway during ejaculation (10% to 20% of the cases)
  • Pituitary gland or hypothalamus conditions (1% – 2% of the cases)

Despite the medical advances, in some cases male infertility shows no explainable reasons.

Male Infertility Treatment

In order to evaluate infertility in men, the most important test is sperm evaluation or semen analysis. Also, medical history and physical examination are performed to diagnose the causes and set up a treatment plan.

During semen analysis, a lab test measures sperm count and provides information regarding number, motility and shape of the sperm. 

Other tests include:

  • Blood tests
  • Genetic tests
  • Transrectal ultrasound test
  • Post-ejaculation urine sample
  • Testicular biopsy

Depending on the underlying causes, sometimes months or years of persistent treatment for male infertility is necessary to achieve results. The active, supportive involvement of the partner is indispensable for success.

List of male infertility treatments:

  • Surgery – It is conducted to open a blockage of the reproductive tract. It implies vasectomy reversal.
  • Gonadotropin treatment – treatment of hypothalamic or pituitary deficiency – treated with chrorionicgonadotropin (hCG) and recombinant human follicle stimulating hormone (rhFSH).
  • Varicocele – It includes the dilation of veins in the scrotum through surgery.
  • ART or assisted reproductive techniques such as ICSI or intracytoplasmic sperm injection, which is part of in vitro fertilization (IVF) a very successful treatment for male infertility.